Study from Poland shows decrease in anti-hepatitis C virus seroprevalence in (sub)urban working age population from 2004 to 2014
Eurosurveillance, Volume 22, Issue 2, 12 January 2017
Table of Contents
Mosquitoes collected in Germany in 2016, including Culex pipiens pipiens biotype pipiens, Culex torrentium and Aedes albopictus, as well as Culex pipiens pipiens biotype molestus (in colony since 2011) were experimentally infected with Zika virus (ZIKV) at 18 °C or 27 °C. None of the Culex taxa showed vector competence for ZIKV. In contrast, Aedes albopictus were susceptible for ZIKV but only at 27 °C, with transmission rates similar to an Aedes aegypti laboratory colony tested in parallel.
To enable an up-to-date molecular analysis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genotypes circulating in Germany we have established a surveillance system based on recently acquired HIV infections. New HIV infections are reported to the Robert Koch Institute as a statutory duty for anonymous notification. In 2013 and 2014, a dried serum spot (DSS) sample was received from 6,371 newly diagnosed HIV-cases; their analysis suggested that 1,797 samples originated from a recent infection. Of these, 809 were successfully genotyped in the pol region to identify transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutations and to determine the HIV-1 subtype. Total TDR was 10.8%, comprising 4.3% with mono-resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), 2.6% to non-NRTIs, 3.0% to protease inhibitors and 0.6% and 0.2%, respectively, with dual- and triple-class resistances. HIV-1 subtype B was most prevalent with 77.0%. Non-B infections were identified more often in men and women with heterosexual transmission compared with intravenous drug users or men who have sex with men (79% and 76%, 33%, 12%; all p < 0.05). Non-B subtypes were also more frequently found in patients originating from countries other than Germany (46% vs 14%; p < 0.05) and in patients infected outside of Germany (63% vs 14%; p < 0.05).
Molecular surveillance of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) using 24-loci MIRU-VNTR in the European Union suggests the occurrence of international transmission. In early 2014, Austria detected a molecular MDR-TB cluster of five isolates. Links to Romania and Germany prompted the three countries to investigate possible cross-border MDR-TB transmission jointly. We searched genotyping databases, genotyped additional isolates from Romania, used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to infer putative transmission links, and investigated pairwise epidemiological links and patient mobility. Ten isolates from 10 patients shared the same 24-loci MIRU-VNTR pattern. Within this cluster, WGS defined two subgroups of four patients each. The first comprised an MDR-TB patient from Romania who had sought medical care in Austria and two patients from Austria. The second comprised patients, two of them epidemiologically linked, who lived in three different countries but had the same city of provenance in Romania. Our findings strongly suggested that the two cases in Austrian citizens resulted from a newly introduced MDR-TB strain, followed by domestic transmission. For the other cases, transmission probably occurred in the same city of provenance. To prevent further MDR-TB transmission, we need to ensure universal access to early and adequate therapy and collaborate closely in tuberculosis care beyond administrative borders.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) to be a serious public health concern and one of the major public health priorities. In 2005, it was estimated that there are 185 million anti-HCV positive people in the world, which constitutes 2.8% of the global population. Our study estimates the anti-HCV seroprevalence in the working age population (15–64 years-old), mostly urban and suburban residents, in Poland from 2004 to 2014. The studied group consisted of 61,805 working-age population representatives whose data were obtained from electronic medical records of an outpatient clinic network operating on a countrywide level. Positive anti-HCV test results were obtained in 957 patients, representing 1.5% of the whole population studied throughout the analysed period. The average age of all anti-HCV positive patients was 36.8 years. Analysis of the data suggests that the proportion of anti-HCV positive patients decreased over the study period (mean positive anti-HCV = -0.0017 × year + 3.3715; R2 = 0.7558). In 2004, positive results were noted among 3.2% of patients undergoing HCV antibody tests, but in 2014, the percentage of patients with a positive result stood at 1.1%. The apparent decrease affected men and women similarly. Our study also provides evidence that screening people born before 1965 could be beneficial.
Eurosurveillance Edition: 12 January 2017
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